Since their first cultivations 5,000 years ago, roses have developed into thousands of hybrids. You can find diverse types of roses that come in numerous colors, shapes, and sizes. Currently, there are more than 150 rose species and thousands of hybrids, cultivated to suit various garden types.
Tracking all rose types can be overwhelming for beginners. You can start from this basic guide to determine the best rose varieties to plant. Here are 20 of the most popular rose types.
1. English Roses
English roses are popular for their large rosette blooms. They have numerous colors, from pale orange to deep red and pink. The large rosettes look prominent in an arrangement. Despite their beauty, English roses are not the hardiest types.
2. Heritage Roses
Also known as traditional roses, Heritage roses cultivated before 1867. They only bloom once a year but have numerous petals, amazing fragrance, and resistance toward disease. Heritage roses can withstand cold compared to more modern varieties.
3. Modern Garden Roses
“Modern” roses refer to any hybrids cultivated after the year 1867. It was the first time that people could enjoy roses that bloom continuously instead of once a year. These roses are hardy and disease-resistant, but the smells are faint or even nonexistent.
4. Hybrid Tea Roses
Hybrid Tea is a modern rose type that has slightly pointed blooms. They have a wide range of colors, from yellow to white and red. Hybrid Tea is very prominent in the garden or arrangement, but the flowers are not hardy and requiring high maintenance.
5. Hybrid Perpetual Roses
Hybrid Perpetual was popular in the 19th century, before being overshadowed by Hybrid Tea. However, this type still has popularity, due to its large blooms and sweet fragrance. Hybrid Perpetual comes in shades such as white, dusty pink, and deep pink.
6. Miniature Roses
Miniature roses are the small versions of the classic Hybrid Tea. They have various color ranges, from yellow to white and pink. Their small sizes make them perfect for small containers, border gardens, or pathways.
7. Damask Roses
Another old variety, Damask has been around since the Biblical era. The blooms are round, with numerous petals. They bloom once or twice a year. Damask roses have amazing fragrance favored by the perfume industry.
8. China Roses
China roses is a small rose type with compact blooms and sweet fragrance. They are hardy but unable to withstand extreme cold. China roses bloom several times during summer and fall. They are perfect for a delicate garden or modest arrangement.
9. French Roses
Also known as Gallica roses, French roses have been famous for their beauty since the 12th century. French roses have slightly opened blooms with various pink, purple, and red shades. Some of the varieties have striped petals. French roses used to be ingredients for traditional medications.
10. Tea Roses
Tea roses are the “parents” of Hybrid Tea, popular after being introduced to the West. Tea roses hail from China and have a unique fragrance that resembles tea. They bloom several times during summer and fall. Tea roses are hardy, with a wide range of colors to decorate any garden.
11. Species Roses
“Species roses” are wild roses untouched by hybridization. Many of them have single-layer petals with yellow centers that look nothing like modern roses. However, they can grow into various sizes, and create delicate beauty in your garden. Species roses can grow on thicket or sport large blooms.
12. Hybrid Musk Roses
The “musk” in these rose names came from their musky scent, which can be strong but sweet. These roses were developed in the 20th century, prized for their single five-petal, layered blooms and fragrance. The flowers grow on top of bushy foliage, which looks beautiful in a garden or arrangement.
13. Hybrid Rugosa Roses
Hailing from China, Japan, Siberia, and Korea, Hybrid Rugosa is a type of small rose variety that grows on bushy foliage. These roses have few color ranges, mostly pink and purple shades. The flowers look less majestic than classic varieties, but they are hardy and perfect for “wild” garden.
14. Alba Roses
The Albas grow once a year during spring or summer, but they are hardy and delicate. They have pale colors, mostly white and dusty pink. Alba roses also have a sweet fragrance and can tolerate a slightly hotter or colder temperature.
15. Rambling Roses
Rambling roses flowers cover the surfaces they grow on like carpets. However, you can also train them to grow on stakes or trellis. The flowers are similar to wild roses, with single-layer petals and small yellow centers.
16. Polyantha Roses
Polyantha roses are small, but they grow in large clusters, with various shades that revolve around red, pink, and white. Polyantha roses are hardy and low-maintenance, perfect for beginners. They are ideal for cottage gardens, and a great choice for a small vase arrangement.
17. Centifolia Roses
Centifolia roses have cabbage-like blooms with shades such as pale pink, rich pink, and white. They bloom once a year during summer, with flowers so big that their stems are almost unable to hold them. Centifolia roses have a strong fragrance, making them popular in the perfume industry. Centifolia is prone to disease.
18. Moss Roses
Moss roses earned their names from moss-like growth on their stems. They are shrub-type roses that release woody perfumes, which are unique for these flowers. Moss roses have colors such as pink and magenta. They bloom once a year and perfect for a cottage garden.
19. Noisette Roses
Noisette roses are American hybrids developed from China roses. These flowers have large blooms that grow in clusters. Tall stems support each bloom. Noisette roses can repeatedly bloom in a year, and they spread sweet fragrance.
20. Shrub Roses
“Shrub” is the name given to flower hybrids that cannot be grouped into any categories. The bloom has cabbage-like petal formation. Each stem may support one or a few blooms. Shrub roses are ideal for cottage gardens, and they are very low-maintenance.
These types of roses have unique characteristics, with several varieties under each group. Make sure you know their traits and maintenance level before planting them in your garden.